The midterm of Social Psychology(Form A)
1. Sometimes the harder you try to control a thought, feeling, or behavior, the less likely you are to succeed, which Wegner (1994) called “ironic processes”.
2. The term self-concept refers to the sum total of beliefs that people have about themselves
3. Self-schemas are beliefs about oneself that guide the processing of self relevant information.
4. People have difficulty projecting forward and predicting how they would feel in response to future emotional events—a process referred to as affective forecasting.
5. Overjustification effect is the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors.
6. Festinger (1954) argued that when people are uncertain of their abilities or options, they evaluate themselves through comparisons with similar others. This process is social comparison.
7. According to two-factor theory of emotion, the experience of emotion is based on two factors: psychological arousal and cognitive interpretation of it.
8. According to Markus and Kitayama (1991), independent view of self is an entity that is distinct, autonomous, self contained, and endowed with unique dispositions.
9. terror management theory is the theory which humans cope with the fear of their own death by constructing worldviews that help to preserve their self-esteem.
10. Self-awareness theory states that if a successful reduction of self-discrepancy seems unlikely, individuals will take the second route: escape from self- awareness.
11. People who score high on a test of private-self consciousness tend to fill in incomplete sentences with first person pronouns.
12. The reason people use self-handicapping is simple: By admitting to a limited physical or mental weakness, they can shield themselves from what could be the most shattering implication of failure—a lack of ability.
13. Shelley Taylor and Jonathon Brown (1988) found that individuals who are low self-esteem actually have more realistic views of themselves than others who are better adjusted.
14. Self-presentation—strategies people use to shape what other think of them.
15. Social perception is a general term for the process by which people come to understand one another.
16. Jones and Davis’s correspondent inference theory predicts that people try to infer from an action weather the act itself corresponds to an enduring personal characteristic of the actor.
17. In Covariation Theory, three kinds of Covariation information are useful: consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency.
18. Availability heuristic is a tendency to estimate the odds that an event will occur by how easily instances of it pop to mind.
19. People are used to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions, attributes, and behaviors. This is called false- consensus effect.
20. Base-rate fallacy is the fact that people are relatively insensitive to numerical base rates, or probabilities, being influenced more by graphic, dramatic events.
21. When people explain the behaviors of others, they tend to overestimate the role of personal factors, and overlook the impact of situations; this has been called fundamental attribution error.
22. The tendency to make personal attributions for the behavior of others and situational attribution for ourselves is called the actor-observer effect.
23. According to Lerner(1980), people need to view the world as a place in which we ”get what we deserve” and “deserve what we get”. We can say that these people have the belief in a just world.
24. People seek more information about their strengths than about weakness is called self-serving bias.
25. Anderson’s(1981)information integration theory argued that impressions formed of others are based on a combination of personal dispositions of the perceiver and a weighted average.
26. Trait negativity bias:is a tendency toward negative information to weigh more heavily than positive information.
27. Implicit personality theory is a network of assumptions that we hold about relationships among various types of people, trait, and behaviors.
28. Need for closure is the desire to reduce cognitive uncertainty and ambiguity, which heightens the importance of first impressions.
29. Self-fulfilling prophecy is the process by which one’s expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that confirm those expectations.
30. From facial expressions, people all over the world can identify the emotions of happiness, fear, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust.
31. Discrimination—negative behaviors directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group.
32. Stereotypes—beliefs that associate a whole group of people with certain traits.
33. Perceivers assume that there is a greater similarity among members of out groups than among members of one’s own group is a phenomenon known as the out-group homogeneity effect.
34. Implicit association test is a covert measure of unconscious attitudes derived from the speed at which people associate pairs of concepts.
35. According to Cacioppo (1997), our attitude can be positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent.
36. Social role theory is the theory that small gender differences are magnified in perception by contrasting social roles occupied by men and woman.
37. Social identity theory is the theory that people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self-esteem.
38. Relative deprivation are feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared with others.
39. A typical example of stereotype threat manifests when a categorical group is told or shown that their group’s performance is worse than other groups before giving them a test; the test results are often abnormally lower than for control groups. For example, on a mathematics test, if you remind a group of girls that boys tend to do better on this type of test, it is likely that the girls will do more poorly on the test than they would have had they not been told.
40. Jigsaw classroom is a cooperative learning technique that reduces racial conflict among school children, promotes better learning, improves student motivation, and increases enjoyment of the learning experience.
41. Contact hypothesis argued that direct contact between hostile groups will reduce prejudice under certain conditions, including social norms, cooperative activities, equal status and personal interaction.
42. People perceive illusory correlations between groups and traits when the traits are distinctive or when the correlations fit prior notions.
43. Benevolent sexism is characterized by affectionate chivalrous, but potentially patronizing feelings toward woman.
44. Ingroup favoritism is more intense among people whose identity and self-esteem are closely tied to their group, people in relatively small minority group, and people who need to secure or elevate their ingroup status because of their tenuous position in the group.
45. Social dominance orientation is a desire to see one’s ingroup as dominant over other groups and willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups.
46. People who tend to see social group as relative fixed, static entities and borders between groups as relatively clear and rigid is an entity theorist.
47. Mundane realism refers to the extent to which the research setting resembles the real-world setting of interest.
48. In the context of research, deception provides false information to participant.
49. Informed consent is an individual’s deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research, based on the researcher’s description of what will be required during such participation.
50. Experimenter expectancy effects are produced when an experimenter’s expectations about the results of an experiment affect his or her behavior toward a participant and thereby influence the participant’s responses.