972 The Final Exam of Social Psychology 2009/06/15
1. Hazan and Shaver (1987), guided by Bowlby’s theory, claimed that the interaction experiences of an infant with a caregiver of early life generate his or her internal working model that will guide his or her behaviors, perceptions, and affects of later life. They were the pioneers who used self-report measures of adult attachment to ask participants to identify which one of Ainsworth’s three attachment types best characterized them.
2. The debate about human helping behavior argues that whether humans are truly altruistic-motivated by the desire to increase another’s welfare.
3. Conformity refers to an identification tendency to change our perceptions, opinions, or behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms.
4. Informational influence refers to the influence that produces conformity when a person believes others are correct in their judgments.
5. Companionate love is characterized by high levels of self-disclosure, a willingness to open up and share intimate facts and feelings.
6. Individualism is a cultural orientation in which independence, autonomy, and self-reliance take priority over group allegiances.
7. Process loss refers to the reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes, such as problems of coordination and motivation.
8. Excitation transfer refers to the process whereby arousal caused by one stimulus is added to arousal from a second stimulus and the combined arousal is attributed to the second stimulus.
9. Loneliness is a feeling of deprivation about existing social relations.
10. Behavior change produced by the commands of authority is defined as obedience.
11. According to the empathy-altruism hypothesis, taking the perspective of a person in need creates feelings of empathic concern, which produce the altruistic motive to reduce the other person’s distress.
12. Social impact theory is the theory arguing that social influence depends on the strength, immediacy, and number of source persons relative to target persons.
13. Idiosyncrasy credits are interpersonal credits that a person earns by following group norms.
14. Matching hypothesis refers to the proposition that people are attracted to others who are similar in physical attractiveness.
15. Transactive memory is a shared system for remembering information that enables multiple people to remember information together more efficiently than they could alone.
16. Pluralistic ignorance refers to the state in which people mistakenly believe that their own thoughts and feeling are different from those of others, even when everyone’s behavior is the same.
17. Social dilemma is a situation in which a self-interested choice by everyone creates the worst outcome for everyone.
18. Reciprocity refers a mutual exchange between what we give and receive (for example, liking those who like us).
19. In Sternberg’s Triangular theory of love, love has three basic components- intimacy, passion, and commitment.
20. Prisoner’s dilemma refers to a type of dilemma in which one party must make either cooperative or competitive moves in relation to another party; typically designed in such a way that competitive moves are more beneficial to either side, but if both sides make competitive moves, they are both worse off than if they both cooperated.
21. Process loss refers to the reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes, such as problems of coordination and motivation.
22. The norm of social responsibility dictates that people should help those who need assistance.
23. Graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction (GRIT) refer to a strategy for unilateral, persistent effort to establish trust and cooperation between opposing parties.
24. Integrative agreement is a negotiated resolution to a conflict in which all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to what they would have obtained from an equal division of the contested resources.
25. According to Clark and her colleagues, people respond to each other’s needs and well-being overtime, without regard for whether they have given or received a benefit, when they are in communal relationships.
26. Groupthink is a group decision-making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group members to seek concurrence.
27. When observers do not act in an emergency because they fear making a bad impression on other observers, they are under the influence of audience inhibition.
28. Brainstorming is a technique that attempt to increase the production of creative ideas by encouraging group members to speak freely without criticizing their own or others’ contributions.
29. According to Hatfield, companionate love is a secure, trusting, and stable partnership.
30. According to the theory of social penetration, as a relationship becomes closer, partners increase both the breadth( covering a wider range of topics) and depth (revealing more intimate information) of their exchanges.
31. Group polarization refers to the exaggeration through group discussion of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members.
32. Escalation effect is the condition in which commitments to a failing course of action are increased to justify investments already made.
33. When we are happy, we are helpful- a state of affairs known as the good mood effect.
34. Public conformity refers to a superficial change in overt behavior, without a corresponding change of opinion, produced by real or imagined group pressure.
35. Negative state relief model is defined as the proposition that people help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness.
36. Distraction-conflict theory is a theory holding that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others distract from the task and create attentional conflict.
37. Mere exposure effect is the phenomenon whereby the more often people are exposed to a stimulus, the more positively they evaluate that stimulus.
38. The bystander effect refers to the effect whereby the presence of others inhibits helping.
39. Evaluation apprehension theory is a theory holding that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others are seen as potential evaluators.
40. The theory that reactions to receiving assistance depend on whether help is perceived as supportive or threatening is called threat-to-self-esteem model.
41. Need for affiliation is defined as a desire to establish social contact with others (McAdams, 1989).
42. What-is-beautiful-is-good stereotype is defined as the belief that physically attractive individuals also possess desirable personality characteristics.
43. Social facilitation is a process whereby the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks.
44. The belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing assistance to a person in need, which is referred to as the diffusion of responsibility.
45. General rules of conduct established by society are called social norm.
46. In the study of Hazan and Shaver (1987), they found that people who have an anxious attachment style report a love life full of emotional highs and lows and obsessive preoccupation.
47. In Rosana Yin-Mei Wong and Ying-yi Hong’s experiment, bicultural participants who were primed with Chinese symbols cooperated more when playing a prisoner’s dilemma with a friend than did participants who were primed with American symbols.
48. Proposed by Byrne and his colleagues (1986), the two-stage model of attraction holds that first we avoid dissimilar others; then we approach similar others.
49. Equity theory provides a special version of how social exchange operates in interpersonal interactions (Adams, 1965; Messick & Cook, 1993; Walster et al., 1978). According to this theory, people are most content with a relationship when the ratio between what they get out of it (benefits) and what they put into it (contributions) is similar for both partners.
50. Bibb Latane and his colleagues (1979) found that group-produced reductions in individual output on easy tasks where contributions are pooled, which they called social loafing.